My stairs (indoor) rest on the stringers. So what would you do if the landing were to have a finished floor that was thicker than the treads? Aghayere, Abi, and Jason Vigil. If I understand your question we cut off 5/8" of wood and add 5/8" of PVC - so the step rise should be unchanged. Modify type properties to change the calculation rules, stringers, risers, treads, and more for a sketched stair family. I am making a monorail stringer out of universal beam. 2 (2009): 122-129. If you’ve done the math (it’s grade-school stuff) and the layout right, the tread cuts will be level and the riser cuts plumb. Is it to code to cut 5/8" off the bottom of stair stringers and affix a 5/8" thick piece of pvc to keep the wood up off the wet pavement? 3 Cut new notched stringers from 2x12s using a circular saw; finish cuts with handsaw. Mr. Fournier is a structural engineer in North Conway NH. The number of stair stringers that you need because on the dimensions of the lumber used, the width of the stair, and whether or not there can be intermediate support beneath the Stringer. The fastener that is installed into the bottom edge of the stringer must go into the second-to-last hole. I've seen this addition when stairs were bouncy or creaky too. Continue stepping your way down the board until you have the proper number of risers traced out (six, in this case). [43] International Building Code, Stairway Provisions, Section 1009: Stairways and Handrails, retrieved 8/29/12, original source: http://www.amezz.com/ibc-stairs-code.htm [copy on file as IBC Stairs Code.pdf], [44] Model Building Code, Chapter 10, Means of Egress, retrieved 8/29/12, original source: http://www2.iccsafe.org/states/newjersey/NJ_Building/PDFs/NJ_Bldg_Chapter10.pdf, [copy on file as NJ_Bldg_Chapter10.pdf] adopted, for example by New Jersey. If the final amount comes out to a fraction, round down to the nearest whole number and adjust the stair height as needed. Steve I'd like to see a photo, but yes it's quite possible that someone felt that the stairs were not adequately supported by the stringers so added a post at mid-span. Set the stringer stock on a pair of sawhorses or a work table with the crown facing toward you. In this case, the bottom of the stringer had to be held ¾ in. Time left 1d 16h left. Replaces additional framing and toe-nailing Suitable for most installations on 2x10 or 2x12 header/rim joist May be installed flush with the top of the carrying member or lower on the face If you stop to check the layout or to count rises or to work from the backside of the stringer, just make sure the square’s orientation hasn’t changed before resuming the layout. 48. Note: this is just one example table of allowable spans for RigidLam LVL stringers out of a larger range of LVL dimensions and tables provided by Roseburg FP. above the board representing the platform framing to account for floor sheathing on the landing. Stringers can be open or closed, as shown in “Types of Stringers.” With closed stringers, the treads and risers fit into slots cut into the inside face of the stringer stock. [27] "The Dimensions of Stairs", J. M. Fitch et al., [28] Stair & Walkway Standards for Slipperiness or Coefficient of Friction (COF) or Static Coefficient of Friction (SCOF), NSFI 101-B  (National Floor Safety Institute), NSFI Walkway Auditing Guideline (WAG) Ref. 1. Greg Vanden Berge, 2012. The essence of laying out stair stringers is straightforward. As such, it is recommended the LSC be installed with the tabs positioned to the outside of the stringer. Interchangeable for left or right applications LSCSS features a Stainless Steel coating for additional corrosion protection. Step/treads, railings and risers are not included with our stringers. After establishing the lines for the first tread at the top of the stringer, slide the framing square down, so that the edge of the riser gauge lines up with the tread line. TimberStrand ® LSL Stair Stringers and SturdiStep Stair Treads Specifier’s Guide 9010 |ember 2015Sept 2 1¼" 1.3E TimBERSTRand® LSL SAIRT STRINGERS Suggested Residential Stringer Attachment Details 40 psf Live Load and 12 psf Dead Load High End (1) Minimum throat depths may be reduced by an additional ¼" for 117⁄8" and 14" material depths if 2x4 reinforcement is "Structural performance of wood-based stair stringers." By the way, the simplest way to extend riser or tread lines is to place a second framing square or a straightedge against the square with stair gauges. Shown below, quoting from Simpson Framing Project Guide. Field slopeable to all common stair stringer pitches, the LSCZ connector is suitable for either solid or notched stringers. Try the search box just below, or if you prefer, post a question or comment in the Comments box below and we will respond promptly. Take time now to make sure the stringer fits exactly. The stringer is a 6 step. Yes a riser is the vertical board enclosing the space between horizontal walking surfaces, i.e. Most building codes allow a 2° slope AND a ¼” variance between any riser heights, thus allowing a combined 2 ½” to 3″ additional adjustment up … Mar 25, 2020 - Explore Clinton Johnson's board "Stairs stringer", followed by 374 people on Pinterest. Anon You use a framing square to draw the stair’s notches on the stringer, then you cut them out. Stair stringers are most often cut from a single 2x12 stock board. Stair stringers are typically made from 2×12 lumber. }, [19] Common Sense Stairbuilding and Handrailing, Fred T. Hodgson, [21] Building Stairs, by pros for pro, Andy Engel, [22] A Simplified Guide to Custom Stairbuilding, George R. Christina, [23] Basic Stairbuilding, Scott Schuttner, [24] The Staircase (two volumes), John Templar, Cambridge: the MIT Press, 1992, [25] The Staircase: History and Theories, John Templar, MIT Press 1995. Steve I'd like to see a photo, but yes it's quite possible that someone felt that the stairs were not adequately supported by the stringers so added a post at mid-span. However as long as the stair is secure and sound and the risers of the same height it should be fine.If a stair stringer adjustment makes one of the steps shorter than the others then that'd be a trip hazard and would be improper. Above: an example LVL stair stringer guide provided for RigidLam LVL courtesy of Roseburg FP cited just below. Before an inspection has been performed we don't know if the deflection of the stair stringer to which you refer is due to damage (rot for example) or a design inadequacy. Simpson and others make framing connectors specifically designed to give a safe, proper structural connection between the stair stringer and the deck (often to a rim joist provided the rim joist itself is adequately secured). Berge, Greg Vanden. 4. Depending on how you are attaching the top step, you may need to make an additional adjustment to maintain a uniform stair design. 2650-2659. Become a member and get unlimited site access, including the Fast-Stairs specialises in providing what is the hardest part in building stairs (the frame) and what cant be found elsewhere: modular adjustable steel stair stringers. Now tighten a stair gauge at 8⅛ in. So at the bottom of those stringers, we made a notch to wrap around the framing of the landing. - PDF Document from NI, [12] Slips, Trips, Missteps and Their Consequences, Second Edition, Gary M. Bakken, H. Harvey Cohen,A. But if the treads had been, say, 1¼ in. Continue reading at STAIR CONSTRUCTION, SPECIFIC ANGLE or SLOPE, or select a topic from the closely-related articles below, or see the complete ARTICLE INDEX. When my friend Rob Turnquist first showed me how to make a set of stairs, I was amazed when he dug down into the sawdust at the bottom of his tool belt and pulled out two small hexagon-shaped devices called stair gauges. Before fastening, position the stair stringer with the LSC on the carrying member to verify where the bend should be located. To change type properties, select an element and click Modify tabProperties panel (Type Properties). Field slopeable to all common stair stringer pitches, the LSC connector is suitable for … Right, you’d drop the height of the landing by the difference in the thicknesses. This article describes the construction and building code specifications for the support of residential stairways: how strong should the stringers be, and what are the load bearing requirements of stairs and their supporting stringer beams. Tabs on the LSC must be positioned to the inside of the stairs. The Patent Pending Up-Standing Adjustable Instrument Stringer Introducing the Industry’s 1st Free Standing & Adjustable Instrument Stringer. -osha.gov/doc/outreachtraining/htmlfiles/stairlad.html. Open stringers, sometimes called cut stringers, have triangular-shaped notches cut out of their top edge so that the stringer resembles a dragon’s tail (a common nickname for open stringers). 1-1/2" fasteners installed into 1-1/4" LSL stringer will protrude from the opposite side. Become a member and get instant access to thousands of videos, how-tos, tool reviews, and design features. It's also worth emphasizing that in all cases the connections are as important as the beam strength. but the stringer cutouts are not at 90 degrees. The USA Stringer’s width adjusts from 2.5″ to allow for easier loading of instruments and extends to 5″ for a wider extention of instruments to meet sterilization protocols. Adjust the bottom stair for the missing tread. As with floor framing, crown the stringer stock and make sure that any bow faces the direction of the tread and riser cutouts. Individual stair treads shall be designed for the uniformly distributed live load or a 300–pound concentrated load acting over an area of 4 square inches, whichever produces the greater stresses. Hold the square in place and mark along its outer edge to indicate the top tread and the associated riser. 00 After the test stringer has passed its exam, the rest of the treads and risers can be cut out. Let's be clear first that a significant concern with the strength of supporting stair stringers (effectively angle beams) arise because a typical 2x12" (or rarely 2x14") stringer is in some stair designed notched to carry the stair treads on the horizontal notch face and stair risers on the vertical notch face. This has created the need for double inventory of stringers … Now for the moment of truth. stock. © 2021 The Taunton Press, Inc. All rights reserved. Nearly half of these injuries are serious enough to require time off the job--11,570 lost workday injuries and 13,312 non-lost workday injuries occur annually due to falls from stairways and ladders used in construction. Less than 2" of lumber was left in this stair stringer 2x after the builder cut his tread notches. 3. Provides a method of connecting a stair stringer with a hidden hanger Seat of the hanger is adjustable to match the slope of the stair stringer Reversible design allows the connector to be used in left, right, or interior stringers May be used with USP SCA stair angles for a … In Structures Congress 2010, pp. Click to Show or Hide Citations & References, UNSAFE STAIR TREAD TO STRINGER CONNECTIONS, CONSTRUCTION GUIDES for EXPOSED WOOD DECKS, STAIRS, BALUSTRADES & HANDRAILS CLASS 1 BUILDINGS - CONSTRUCTION, ENGINEERED WOOD: EAST 1½" VERSA-LAM® LVL 1.8E 2650STAIR STRINGER GUIDE, ENGINEERED WOOD: WEST 15⁄16" VERSA-LAM® LVL 1.5E 1800STAIR STRINGER GUIDE, LP SOLIDSTART LSL STAIR STRINGER US TECHNICAL GUIDE, STAIRWAYS & LADDERS, A GUIDE to OSHA RULES, TrusJoist STAIR STRINGERS AND TREADS SPECIFIERS GUIDE, STAIR CONSTRUCTION, SPECIFIC ANGLE or SLOPE, ARTICLE INDEX to STAIRS RAILINGS LANDINGS RAMPS, HOME INSPECTION EDUCATION COURESES (Canada), HOME INSPECTION EDUCATION: HOME STUDY COURSES. Remember that there’s no riser at the top of the stringer: The top tread is actually the top of the stringer. I'm talking about the wood itself becoming 4 1/2" on the bottom rise. If you're not familiar with this deflection limit, L/360 means that the allowable deflection (or "sag") is limited to the length of the span in inches / 360 for live loads. The best way to solve this problem is to use a level across each tread that you cut. Anderson, L.O., T.B. "Frontmatter." Or use the SEARCH BOX found below to Ask a Question or Search InspectApedia. A quick diagonal measurement from the top of the stairs to the platform location marked earlier tells you approximately what length stock to cut the stringer from, but start out with a little extra length just in case. Is it to code to cut 5/8" off the bottom of stair stringers and affix a 5/8" thick piece of pvc to keep the wood up off the wet pavement? (If one of these spots is unavoidable, carefully sight down the milled face of the stair gauge and align it with the edge of the board.) 1 product rating - Adjustable Stair-Stringer Connector by Simpson Strong Tie Zmax. You’re probably wondering about now why we didn’t just build the platform first and then cut stringers to fit. Adjustable Stringer Stringers used in the preparation of instruments for sterilization are usually are 2” - 3” in width. The first step is to make a test stringer, which will confirm that your calculations are correct. One may need to increase the number of stringers accordingly. Adjust the Stringer for the Tread Thickness If you were to cut the bottom riser at the full height of 6 ¼ inches, placing the bottom tread would increase the height of that first step by thickness of the that tread. The LSCZ adjustable stair-stringer connector offers a versatile, concealed connection between the stair stringer and the carrying header or rim joist while replacing costly framing. Deflection criteria is listed in 2018 IBC Table 1604.3 and is typically limited to L/360 for live load and L/240 for total load. Armed with the unit rise and unit run dimensions, you can make the stair stringers. Keep the corner of the framing square flat on the stringer stock, then slide the framing square onto the crowned edge of the board until both gauges touch the edge of the stringer. When all the cutouts are made on the first stringer, you can use it as a pattern for the other stringers in the same flight. Forest products journal 54, no. The stringers, 5 treads, and 6 risers, installed in 1965, were not cut correctly. Are their specifications or requirements for the maximum angles the steps can vary from 90 degrees? The test stringer for the upper flight had just the plumb cut and tread cut at the top and the notch at the bottom. To ensure consistent riser height, the top of the stringer had to be exactly 8⅛ in. After the stringers have been marked, you must make an adjustment. (Seattle area where it rains all the time) If I do this, my bottom stringer rise, before treads are installed, will decrease to 5 1/8" - 5/8" = 4 1/2". A common construction or repair method for strengthening notched stair stringers is the addition of either full depth (not notched) dimensional lumber (e.g. run of the treads meant that the bottom riser on the stringers for the upper flight would have only 1½ in. 32 ($19.73/Item) FREE Shipping. InspectAPedia tolerates no conflicts of interest. or Best Offer +$10.40 shipping. Swanson Tool Co S0107 "Big 12" 12-Inch Speed Square Layout Tool with Blue Book. Tread. Changes to type properties apply to all instances in the project. $20.48 $ 20. The LSCZ adjustable stair-stringer connector offers a versatile, concealed connection between the stair stringer and the carrying header or rim joist while replacing costly framing. I'm building deck stairs with 12 treads, 2 notched plus 2 closed stringers. Here are easy tips to cut your stair stringers: Simplified Stair Building. Aghayere, Abi, and Jason Vigil. Choose the straightest, best-quality 2×12 stock to use for stringers. One stair-building factor that confounds carpenters and messes up stairs is dealing with the finished floor thickness and the thickness of the finished treads. of support on the landing, not nearly enough. LC Set a torpedo level along one of the tread lines to confirm that the steps made from this stringer will be level. Trusted, in-depth guidance from the pros for framing a durable, code-compliant house. DwaynePlease forgive me but as you phrase the question I don't know how to answer it. The Strong-Tie LSCZ adjustable stringer connector features a G185 ZMAX galvanized finish for added corrosion resistance and requires the use of hot-dip galvanized fasteners which meet the specifications of ASTM A153. The amount of extra work this takes is minimal compared to the benefit it brings. below the second-floor sheathing, or the height of one riser. Note: appearance of your Comment below may be delayed: if your comment contains an image, web link, or text that looks to the software as if it might be a web link, your posting will appear after it has been approved by a moderator. Open stringers, such as those on this project, are made from framing-grade lumber and are not usually left exposed. The stringers are already cut and are 12' long. Use all specified fasteners. Simply align the bottom edge of the pattern on the stringer stock and trace every detail. 4.6 out of 5 stars 435. c. Individual stair treads shall be designed for the uniformly distributed live load or a 300-pound concentrated load acting over an area of 4 square inches, whichever produces the greater stresses. Journal of structural engineering 135, no. These can be adjusted to your exact specifications, making it easier to ensure that each angle comes out identical without the need to realign the square every time. Place index fingers inside cross bar and middle finger outside cross bar, grip and pull apart until fully expanded. 2. But when it’s not quite right and the platform needs to be taken out with a reciprocating saw to be lowered ¼ in., I’ll remind you that it’s a lot easier to tweak the height of the platform when it’s represented by a single board nailed to the framing. thick, then we’d have to drop the stringer an extra ½ in., or the difference in thickness between the finished floor (¾ in.) ASCE, 2010. The assembly is adapted to use a pair of parallel stringer arms for each side of the stair, a riser/tred support bracket for each stair, and alignment and spacing elements for spacing the support brackets along the stringers. But in this house, the finished landing floors were the same thickness as the treads, so we set the landing height at exactly seven times the rise, or 56⅞ in. LevelMaster Stair Stringers. $197.32 $ 197. I've requested the builder take a look, in the meanwhile, is there a specific code I can refer to in order to ascertain if the stair was properly constructed? The connections of stair stringer to the risen-to platform, of treads to stringer, and of railings and posts are critical for safe stair construction. stair stringer 3-step 39in $31.53 $ 31. Well, go right ahead and build the platform and then try the test stringer. 101-A& 101-B (may appear as ANSI B101.0) sets rules for measuring walkway slip resist, OSHA - (Dept of Labor CFR 1910.22 does not specify COF and pertains to workplaces) but recognizes the need for a "qualified person" to evaluate walkway slipperiness, ADA (relies on the ANSI and ASTM standards)Â, Our recommended books about building & mechanical systems design, inspection, problem diagnosis, and repair, and about indoor environment and IAQ testing, diagnosis, and cleanup are at the. I prefer to avoid deflection or even collapse problems by using a solid stringer, connecting stair treads to cleats. treads. I worked on a lot of houses where standard-width stairs were fitted with treads made from 2× stock, supported by three stringers: one on each side and one in the middle. Closed stringers are usually made from finish-grade lumber and are meant to be left exposed. See more ideas about stairs stringer, stairs, diy stairs. More importantly, they show that compliance with OSHA's requirements for the safe use of ladders and stairways could have prevented many of these injuries. using the 2003 IRC. When they fall on uneven ground they can become misaligned over time. However as long as the stair is secure and sound and the risers of the same height it should be fine. Much later on, the temporary treads will be replaced by finished treads and risers. The assembly is adapted to use a pair of parallel stringer arms for each side of the stair, a riser/tred support bracket for each stair, and alignment and spacing elements for spacing the support brackets along the stringers. A stair stringer is the support frame piece to which the risers and treads of the stairs are attached. Instructions for Use: Adjustable Stringers Brand Name of Product Adjustable Stringers Generic Name of Product Adjustable instrument stringers Product Code Number(s) AJS 8, AJS 13, AJS 17 Purpose of Product This product adjusts to the sizes of instruments for more effective cleaning of hard to reach areas and can also be adjusted to the optimal width for placement of instruments inside a We cut a board that represented one end of the platform and tacked it in place at that height. STAIR STRINGER SPECIFICATIONS at InspectApedia.com - online encyclopedia of building & environmental inspection, testing, diagnosis, repair, & problem prevention advice. I cut open the wall under the stairs and found three studs nailed together that seem to be a support is this load bearing for about 12 steps. An adjustable stair stringer and railing construction assembly is disclosed. Stringers act like ladders steps and are necessary to help hold your deck stairs in place. Apologies for the delay. I'm talking about the wood itself becoming 4 1/2" on the bottom rise.I'm building deck stairs with 12 treads, 2 notched plus 2 closed stringers. Stringers. Brand New. Field slopeable to all common stair stringer pitches, the LSCZ connector is suitable for either solid or notched stringers. Photo: we see the addition of an intermediate support below a long stair stringer. He slipped the gauges onto the square at the proper rise and run dimensions and tightened the knurled bolts to keep them in place. But the problem with dimensional lumber is that it shrinks over time. Watch; 25 Pack Simpson Strong Tie LSCZ Adjustable Stair-Stringer Connector New In Box. Heebink, A.E. LevelMaster supplies the only adjustable stair stringer base that has been properly engineered and designed. The LSCZ replaces additional framing and toe-nailing and is interchangeable for left or right applications. To make sure the stringers are the right length, I always number the risers and double-check my numbers before cutting them. There are 2 stringers on a staircase. As for the length of the stringers, take the total height the stairs need to be and square that value. American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA) Wood Frame Construction Manual (WFCM). One approach with dimension lumber is to notch the stair stringers and consider only the depth of wood beneath the tread/riser notches as effective in resisting the applied load. 53 8-Step Pressure-Treated Cedar-Tone Stair Stringer, Pre-cut, Pre-stained, Outdoor Use 4.1 out of 5 stars 33 $60.00 $ 60 . If, for example, your treads are 1 inch thick, that bottom step would be … available from the publisher, Lawyers ^ Judges Publishing Company,Inc., www.lawyersandjudges.com sales@lawyersandjudges.com, [13] Slips, Trips, Missteps and Their Consequences, Gary M. Bakken, H. Harvey Cohen, Jon R. Abele, Alvin S. Hyde, Cindy A. LaRue, Lawyers and Judges Publishing; ISBN-10: 1933264012 ISBN-13: 978-1933264011, [14] The Stairway Manufacturers' Association, (877) 500-5759, provides a pictorial guide to the stair and railing portion of the International Residential Code. Each of the trim skirts have been and will be removed. I've seen this addition when stairs were bouncy or creaky too. Sign up for eletters today and get the latest how-to from Fine Homebuilding, plus special offers. Product Details. This line is the plumb cut where the top of the stringer attaches to the plywood hanger or cleat. "Introduction: Wood Properties, Species, and Grades." All pictures on our website were sent by customers having gone through this process. (10 Count) Simpson Strong-Tie LSCSS Adjustable Stair-Stringer Connector Stainless Steel. My reason to want the pvc on the bottom is to prevent wood rot of acq pressure treated lumber on a concrete slab in constant rain My deck stair photo above shows very deep notching in a stair stringer (as well as multiple other safety hazards and code violations). Thank you. In other words the risers are not perpendicular to the treads and pitch forward as they meet the tread above. There are often flaws at the very end of the board that can interfere with the gauges, so place the riser gauge in a bit from the end of the board. The stringer is the portion that supports or ties-together the steps. 2 hem-fir, spruce-pine-fir or better grade. I need to cut 1/4 inch off four of the treads from each stringer. Believe me, it’s easy to get confused at this juncture. Hold the square down firmly and mark the rise and run on the stringer. [26] >Steps and Stairways, Cleo Baldon & Ib Melchior, Rizzoli, 1989. Here is a model building code citation for stair stringer support requirements for residential stairs ISBN 10: 1-933264-01-2, More details are given below on this page and also, Watch out: see stair stringer and stair tread cleat or other stair tread support defects & hazards detailed LCThat sort of detail is not discussed in building codes. For staircases that are against the wall, there’s an open stringer which is exposed and a closed stringer which is the wall or is built into the wall. Now trace the next tread and riser. a 2x12) or engineered lumber fastened to the outside of the notched stringer and running its full length, along with proper structural connectors at the stair top and bottom. Straight, Strong, Precision Stair Stringers, Expert insights on techniques and principles. If I understand your question we cut off 5/8" of wood and add 5/8" of PVC - so the step rise should be unchanged. For example the IRC specifies that stairs shall be designed to withstand a live load of 40 pounds - as with a building floor. Therefore all stair stringers are manufactured to the requirements of the Australian Building code and to suit standard rise and going measurements: [See Chapter 27, "Combined Dead and Live Loads on Stair Stringers"]. They would be deck screwed into a 2x10 joist. How should stair support stringers be constructed and connected, what alternative materials can be used & what are the stair stringer building code specifications for strength & load bearing requirements. Name Description Construction Calculation Rules Click Edit to set the stair calculation rules. Start by laying out the top of the stringer. Steps: 1 Carefully pry old stair treads from staircase. So, used improper terminology below, believe I should have used "stringer" versus "riser", the entire 12' stringer (wood construction) is now deflecting as if a support has failed. Notched stair stringers are widely used and are acceptable if sufficient supporting strength is provided. But pay attention: LVL stock isn’t always perfectly straight, so check for a crown as you would check a 2×12. An adjustable stair stringer and railing construction assembly is disclosed. PhD diss., Milwaukee School of Engineering, 2010. 0 bids. For example the deflection allowed in a 12 foot span would be (12 ft. x 12"/ft) / 360 or (144 / 360) or 0.4 ". on the stairway or on a stair tread) or to support a loading of 100 pounds per square foot, or for residential buildings 40 psf for 1 and two-family dwellings. (Though I noticed that longer stair runs got a little springy sometimes.) Have someone hold the top at the right height while you check the fit at the top and bottom. S. Hyde, Jon R. Abele, ISBN-13: 978-1-933264-01-1 or $49.99. Each has a slot designed to fit over the edge of a framing square. So we built the stairs using four stringers. This stair may be improper in another regard: the total rise or number of steps without an intermediate landing may exceed local building codes. An adjustable stair stringer and railing construction assembly is disclosed. International Code Council, 500 New Jersey Avenue, NW, 6th Floor, Washington, DC 20001, Tel: 800-786-4452, [7] The Circular Staircase, Mary Roberts Rinehart, [8] Construction Drawings and Details, Rosemary Kilmer, [9] Falls and Related Injuries: Slips, Trips, Missteps, and Their Consequences, Lawyers & Judges Publishing, (June 2002), ISBN-10: 0913875430 ISBN-13: 978-0913875438, [11] The National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST (nee National Bureau of Standards NBS) is a US government agency - see www.nist.gov, "A Parametric Study of Wall Moisture Contents Using a Revised Variable Indoor Relative Humidity Version of the "Moist" Transient Heat and Moisture Transfer Model [copy on file as/interiors/MOIST_Model_NIST_b95074.pdf ] - ", George Tsongas, Doug Burch, Carolyn Roos, Malcom Cunningham; this paper describes software and the prediction of wall moisture contents. Thanks again, Rich, My house in Westminster CO is just out of warranty and one of the staircase risers has started to visibly deflect (and squeak) when traversing the stairs. I'd expect the post to be connected to a horizontal beam that runs the width of a stair tread and to be connected to the stringers on either side. Set the test stringer in place. Adjustable house stumps, steel stumps, screw piers, stair stringers, screw piles, bracing, decking brackets, foundations, piles, footings, leveling, ant caps, Field slopeable to all common stair stringer pitches, the LSCZ connector is suitable for either solid or notched stringers. But the initial focus must be on the detection of and response to any *immediate safety hazard* such as conditions that could permit a stair collapse, fall, or injury. OSHA estimates that there are 24,882 injuries and as many as 36 fatalities per year due to falls from stairways and ladders used in construction. I don't understand the question; a misty vague answer might be sure - as long as the stringer you've made is structurally adequate.

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